The I.U.P.A. Research Department

Research Available Upon Request

Information requests provide information on issues and topics that are pertinent to your local’s needs and are limited only by the imagination and need of the local president. We have gathered information on a wide variety of criminal justice and labor movement topics, including, but not limited to:

Police Vehicles

“Star and Shield offers take-home vehicle coverage as well as other insurance products specialized for those in law enforcement. There are also national insurance company options for those who reside and/or work in states that Star and Shield has not yet expanded into … “

For more information or for a copy of the full paper, contact the I.U.P.A. Research Department.

  • “Take home vehicles increase level of enforcement. Officers driving take-home cars off duty that observe serious violations and criminal activity are obligated to take enforcement action.
  • Increases the back-up potential for officers on duty. In critical situations, while the nearest on-duty unit may be in another zone, an off-duty officer may be just around the corner from an emergency call for service, or another officer needing assistance.
  • As previously noted, officers take ownership and treat vehicles as their own keeping it clean.
  • Surveys note officer morale is considerably higher with assigned vehicles … ”

For more information or for a copy of the full paper, contact the I.U.P.A. Research Department.

“There are several avenues available to solve this issue. I.U.P.A.’s recommendations include installation of carbon monoxide detectors, ongoing routine testing of vehicles, rotating out old batteries and vehicles, using certified personnel for installation of equipment into vehicles, cooperating with Ford Motor Company to fix affected vehicles, and working with police vehicle manufacturers to improve the design of vehicles for law enforcement use. The cost of doing nothing far outweighs the expense that would be incurred by making use of the solutions available for this ongoing safety concern … ”

For more information or for a copy of the full paper, contact the I.U.P.A. Research Department.

Shift Schedules and Fatigue

“The Lincoln, NE Police Department, an agency with over 300 sworn officers protecting a city of 230,000 people, implemented the Pitman Schedule on a trial and volunteer basis. A survey was given to volunteers after 6 months of working with the Pitman Schedule. The results regarding fatigue are as follows … “

For more information or for a copy of the full paper, contact the I.U.P.A. Research Department.

“National Council on Crime and Delinquency prepared ‘Job Turnover in Child Welfare and Juvenile Justice: The Voices of Former Frontline Workers’ for The Human Services Workforce Initiative (2006) for which they interviewed 300 frontline juvenile justice and child welfare workers over the phone in order to uncover more information about what is causing the high turnover rates in the fields and how to correct that. This report will focus on their findings with the child welfare workers … “

For more information or for a copy of the full paper, contact the I.U.P.A. Research Department.

“Mehta and Parasuraman (2013) studied how mental and physical processes affect the development of fatigue. Through their research, they tapped into the challenges of attempting to complete physical and mental tasks simultaneously. When that occurs for highly cognitive tasks, the resources in the human brain are divided. This accelerates the rate of fatigue. This is of particular note to law enforcement and other first responders since they continuously complete mental and physical tasks for which they need to be fully alert in order to be effective … ”

For more information or for a copy of the full paper, contact the I.U.P.A. Research Department.

Social Media/Networking

“Law enforcement officials must make decisions in tactical situations and risk their lives on a daily basis. The Internet is similar to the real world in the sense that one poor decision could impact your livelihood. Social networking has become a way for people to share their lives and connect with other people through profiles, blogs, and message boards. Making friends, sharing photos and posting comments are also part of the social networking process. While supervisors and management cannot technically regulate an officer’s off duty usage of social networking sites, they can hold the officers accountable for the information and content they become associated with on these sites … ”

For more information or for a copy of the full paper, contact the I.U.P.A. Research Department.

“Social networking tools such as Facebook, MySpace, and Twitter can be of great value to law enforcement agencies. While many police departments are utilizing social networking to create better bonds with the public and assist them in investigating crimes, they can also lead to trouble … “

For more information or for a copy of the full paper, contact the I.U.P.A. Research Department.

 

Technology/Equipment and Funding

“An in-car recording device is often a double-edged sword. It will provide accountability and management tools as well as additional evidence in what is often a “one-on-one” situation. The vignette of an incident these devices provide, however, must be viewed through the prism of police experience and training, and not simply fodder for prime time news. They do not see what the officer sees; therefore, his interpretation and observations of the event must be carefully weighed during any subsequent investigation, which includes recorded evidence … ”

For more information or for a copy of the full paper, contact the I.U.P.A. Research Department.

“Body Worn Camera Policies:

  • Most policies lack a glossary or definition of terms. Those which do could benefit from expansion.
  • Policies vary with regard to specificity about storage, where to store, and who is responsible for storage, redaction, and costs.
  • Policies vary considerably as to whether or not BWC videos are public records and who can request them if they allow that as well as how to comply with HIPPAA requirements.
  • Policies do not consistently address nor do they handle unintentional recordings in similar manners.
  • Policies do not consistently assign an identifiable responsible party for review of BWC footage … “

For more information or for a copy of the full summary of the research, contact the I.U.P.A. Research Department.

“Above all, the I.U.P.A. recommends strongly and urgently that officers wear their protective vests. It is a startling reality that (National Institute of Justice 2018), ‘A study published in the Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene found that officers who do not routinely wear body armor are 3.4 times more likely to suffer a fatal injury from a torso shot than officers who routinely wear body armor.’ That is an unacceptable and completely avoidable risk … ”

For more information or for a copy of the full paper, contact the I.U.P.A. Research Department.

“Holmes et al. conducted a study in 2012, ‘The effects of police duty belt and seat design changes on lumbar spine posture, driver contact pressure and discomfort’ in which they simulated driving for 10 male and 10 female subjects in standard police seats and in lumbar support seats while wearing full and reduced duty belts. They found that seat design had the most significant impact and that males benefited most from reduced duty belts … ”

For more information or for a copy of the full paper, contact the I.U.P.A. Research Department.

“The I.U.P.A.’s conclusions/recommendations include utilization of the Department of Defense’s 1033 program to attain equipment necessary to keep both law enforcement and the pubic safe while saving law enforcement departments crucial funding. Additionally, the I.U.P.A. recommends engaging with and educating the community about the equipment that law enforcement uses to remove the stigma and help the public to understand its need and purpose. A key recommendation is to craft specific and comprehensive policies about when and how equipment will be used, both to ease the concerns of the public and to ensure that equipment is utilized in the manner intended … ”

For more information or for a copy of the full paper, contact the I.U.P.A. Research Department.

“Police Executive Research Forum (2002) suggests that raising community awareness of law enforcement current events in a positive manner will not only improve police and community relations, but it will raise the possibility of new funding sources bubbling to the surface. They suggest doing this by taking the media bull by the horns, essentially. Rather than waiting for the media to choose their own stories, which often focus on isolated negative circumstances, they suggest sharing the information the department wants to be shared … ”

For more information or for a copy of the full report; in Spanish, English, or both; contact the I.U.P.A. Research Department.

“COO Mandy McCall shared that it is not possible to provide overall success rates as a whole with any measure of reliability as not all of the departments which use the technology have shared all of their information with them. She was able to offer some numbers, however. Overall, given numbers on hand, there is an average 70% to 75% success rate which raises to over 80% once the car has been tagged. That percentage raises to up over 90% in Florida agencies. Saint Petersburg Police Department, for example, experienced an 85% success rate. In central Florida, the accuracy percentage raised even further for unmarked cars, but COO McCall did not see that trend in other places. Milwaukee reported a 50% success rate for the device to stick to vehicles, but is confident that value will raise to 75% with training … ”

For more information or for a copy of the full paper, contact the I.U.P.A. Research Department.

LEO Health/Safety

“Preventative measures include procedures for officer safety, equipment, and clothing. Preventative procedures for questionable or suspected opioids include no field testing or allowing K9s near where the substance may be, waiting for specialized units to investigate, and following hazmat call procedures as a matter of course. Non-latex gloves, gowns, masks, and naloxone kits are needed. Solutions include grants for programs modeled after others that have successfully addressed opioids, strategic inter-agency cooperation, utilization of recent and evolving technologies, and avenues for improved access to and cost reductions for naloxone … ”

For more information or for a copy of the full paper, contact the I.U.P.A. Research Department.

“Through this research, it is clear that the most effective way to protect hearing skills in situations when there may be loud noises that could damage hearing, is through the use of all three methods, to include noise suppressors and ear plugs and muffs that have been fit-tested. Officers, when faced with a loud noise that is unexpected, should move away from it and/or cover their ears with their hands in the event that they do not have a more effective method to protect their ears. Officers should monitor themselves and educate themselves as well, since they are in the best position to monitor themselves consistently and know themselves best … ”

For more information or for a copy of the full paper, contact the I.U.P.A. Research Department.

“Wise and Beck’s 2015 article, “Work-Related Trauma, PTSD, and Workers Compensation Legislation: Implications for Practice and Policy” raise some excellent points. One such point is that the cost of replacing workers is much higher than compensating them for their PTSD-related expenses, not to mention the accumulative cost of employees who don’t leave who have PTSD for resulting heart conditions, absenteeism, injuries on the job, and more … ”

For more information or for a copy of the full paper, contact the I.U.P.A. Research Department.

“Symptoms of PTSD include:

  • Feeling on edge or easily startled
  • An increase in interpersonal problems or trouble with relationships
  • Feeling disconnected from people
  • Difficulty expressing or talking about feelings
  • An increase in drinking or drug use … ”

For more information or for a copy of the flyer, contact the I.U.P.A. Research Department.

“Research – ‘An Investigation of an Expanded Police Chaplaincy Model: Police Chaplains’ Communications with Local Citizens in Crisis” was published on October 7, 2016 by Valerie Gouse who determined that the presence of police chaplains diffused situations.

Legal Concerns – ‘Uniquely Qualified: The Constitutionality of Police and Clergy Alliances’ was published in 2012 in the Virginia Journal of Social Policy and the Law which explores legal considerations with regard to police chaplain programs … ”

For more information or for a copy of the flyer, contact the I.U.P.A. Research Department.

“There are several avenues available to solve this issue. I.U.P.A.’s recommendations include installation of carbon monoxide detectors, ongoing routine testing of vehicles, rotating out old batteries and vehicles, using certified personnel for installation of equipment into vehicles, cooperating with Ford Motor Company to fix affected vehicles, and working with police vehicle manufacturers to improve the design of vehicles for law enforcement use. The cost of doing nothing far outweighs the expense that would be incurred by making use of the solutions available for this ongoing safety concern … ”

For more information or for a copy of the full paper, contact the I.U.P.A. Research Department.

“With increased numbers of law enforcement officers ambushed in assault-type situations and parking lots providing a potential target for those who wish to harm them, the I.U.P.A. has drafted conclusions and recommendations for minimum-level security in these facilities. These include, but are not limited to; consistently enclosed parking lots with:

  • Sufficient parking which only employees have access to by way of a key card/passcode or similar access method.
  • Closed circuit cameras.
  • Sufficient lighting and visibility.
  • Unscheduled and irregular uniformed and visible patrol … ”

For more information or for a copy of the full paper, contact the I.U.P.A. Research Department.

“The I.U.P.A.’s recommendations/conclusions also include implementing precautionary solutions such as bullet resistant and cooling vests, heat monitoring devices, and K9 first aid kits whose contents handlers have been trained well how to use. It is also important to keep cool water available and to monitor K9 Officers closely, halt work immediately if a dog shows signs of heat exhaustion, and provide treatment until the dog reaches a temperature of 103 degrees F, then transport them to the vet for professional care … ”

For more information or for a copy of the full paper, contact the I.U.P.A. Research Department.

“Above all, the I.U.P.A. recommends strongly and urgently that officers wear their protective vests. It is a startling reality that (National Institute of Justice 2018), ‘A study published in the Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene found that officers who do not routinely wear body armor are 3.4 times more likely to suffer a fatal injury from a torso shot than officers who routinely wear body armor.’ That is an unacceptable and completely avoidable risk … ”

For more information or for a copy of the full paper, contact the I.U.P.A. Research Department.

“Holmes et al. conducted a study in 2012, ‘The effects of police duty belt and seat design changes on lumbar spine posture, driver contact pressure and discomfort’ in which they simulated driving for 10 male and 10 female subjects in standard police seats and in lumbar support seats while wearing full and reduced duty belts. They found that seat design had the most significant impact and that males benefited most from reduced duty belts … ”

For more information or for a copy of the full paper, contact the I.U.P.A. Research Department.

“National Council on Crime and Delinquency prepared ‘Job Turnover in Child Welfare and Juvenile Justice: The Voices of Former Frontline Workers’ for The Human Services Workforce Initiative (2006) for which they interviewed 300 frontline juvenile justice and child welfare workers over the phone in order to uncover more information about what is causing the high turnover rates in the fields and how to correct that. This report will focus on their findings with the child welfare workers … “

For more information or for a copy of the full paper, contact the I.U.P.A. Research Department.

“Mehta and Parasuraman (2013) studied how mental and physical processes affect the development of fatigue. Through their research, they tapped into the challenges of attempting to complete physical and mental tasks simultaneously. When that occurs for highly cognitive tasks, the resources in the human brain are divided. This accelerates the rate of fatigue. This is of particular note to law enforcement and other first responders since they continuously complete mental and physical tasks for which they need to be fully alert in order to be effective … ”

For more information or for a copy of the full paper, contact the I.U.P.A. Research Department.

LEO Benefits

“A good solution to pension funding concerns is to research other pension providers and plans. There is likely an option that affords employees strong benefits that is more affordable for the employer. It is also possible to offer a pension plan that supplements the one currently in use to correct for deficiencies in current benefits. Some governments have passed laws for new taxes in order to raise needed funds for pensions, among other things. Another option could be to have new employees chip in by contributing a small percentage of their pay to supplement the employer’s portion of the contribution. Grants are always a possible source of funding as well … ”

For more information or for a copy of the full PowerPoint and/or report; in Spanish, English, or both; contact the I.U.P.A. Research Department.

“Deferred Option Retirement Program Variations:

  • Requirement that employees contribute to the DROP account in order to defray employer costs.
  • Fixed interest rates for DROP accounts since they are kept for short periods of time and can therefore be more susceptible to market shifts.
  • Interest rate one to three percentage points below rate of return to minimize cost and risk.
  • Higher possibilities of investment return which can be designed to benefit or cost employees, the employer, or a combination of both.
  • Years required before eligible and years DROP can last … ”

For more information or for a copy of the full PowerPoint, contact the I.U.P.A. Research Department.

“Wise and Beck’s 2015 article, ‘Work-Related Trauma, PTSD, and Workers Compensation Legislation: Implications for Practice and Policy’ raise some excellent points. One such point is that the cost of replacing workers is much higher than compensating them for their PTSD-related expenses, not to mention the accumulative cost of employees who don’t leave who have PTSD for resulting heart conditions, absenteeism, injuries on the job, and more … ”

For more information or for a copy of the full paper, contact the I.U.P.A. Research Department.

“The I.U.P.A.’s conclusions/recommendations include adopting education incentives and tuition reimbursement for officers. They enhance the services that officers can provide while simultaneously offering the department with valuable recruiting and retention tools. It is of note that the number of departments who offer these benefits are growing and those who do not offer them will lose recruits as well as officers they have already paid to train … ”

For more information or for a copy of the full paper, contact the I.U.P.A. Research Department.

“In a 1998 survey done at the Metropolitan PD, Dr. Anderson found that officers are looking for the following in a counseling program, with the most important listed first:

  1. Licensed therapists separate from the department to ensure the utmost confidentiality.
  2. Counseling for officers and their family members as long as needed.
  3. Therapists who are experienced with law enforcement personnel.
  4. Continuous stress training for officers and law enforcement leaders.
  5. Comfortable offices at a location far away from any police facility.
  6. Free services.
  7. Mandatory debriefings and counseling sessions after all critical incidents … ”

For more information or for a copy of the full paper, contact the I.U.P.A. Research Department.

Residency Requirements

“I.U.P.A. conducted a survey of sixteen Police Departments from across the United States to determine what their residency requirements were for K9 Handlers and details of those who had them, K9 housing requirements, and additional policy information … “

For more information or for a copy of the full survey, contact the I.U.P.A. Research Department.

“The I.U.P.A.’s conclusions/recommendations include the abolition of residency requirements as they have been shown to serve no measurable benefit, and in fact, have been associated with restrictive hiring pools that have been thought to have the end result of a less diverse police force. Additionally, residency requirements have legal, attrition, and financial issues while restricting what officers can provide for their families’ educational opportunities and safety … “

For more information or for a copy of the full paper, contact the I.U.P.A. Research Department.

K9 Officers

“The I.U.P.A.’s recommendations/conclusions also include implementing precautionary solutions such as bullet resistant and cooling vests, heat monitoring devices, and K9 first aid kits whose contents handlers have been trained well how to use. It is also important to keep cool water available and to monitor K9 Officers closely, halt work immediately if a dog shows signs of heat exhaustion, and provide treatment until the dog reaches a temperature of 103 degrees F, then transport them to the vet for professional care … ”

For more information or for a copy of the full paper, contact the I.U.P.A. Research Department.

“The I.U.P.A.’s conclusions/recommendations are multifaceted. First, if legislation seems likely in your jurisdiction and has not yet been passed, make your voice heard. Speak with other Law Enforcement in your area and share your collective concerns and needs with your legislators so that legislation that will be passed addresses Law Enforcement concerns and bolsters your ability to maintain safety in your communities. You could join with other groups who will be affected with similar concerns, such as medical professionals … ”

For more information or for a copy of the full paper, contact the I.U.P.A. Research Department.

“I.U.P.A. conducted a survey of sixteen Police Departments from across the United States to determine what their residency requirements were for K9 Handlers and details of those who had them, K9 housing requirements, and additional policy information …”

For more information or for a copy of the full survey, contact the I.U.P.A. Research Department.

 

Drugs

“Preventative measures include procedures for officer safety, equipment, and clothing. Preventative procedures for questionable or suspected opioids include no field testing or allowing K9s near where the substance may be, waiting for specialized units to investigate, and following hazmat call procedures as a matter of course. Non-latex gloves, gowns, masks, and naloxone kits are needed. Solutions include grants for programs modeled after others that have successfully addressed opioids, strategic inter-agency cooperation, utilization of recent and evolving technologies, and avenues for improved access to and cost reductions for naloxone … ”

For more information or for a copy of the full paper, contact the I.U.P.A. Research Department.

“The I.U.P.A.’s conclusions/recommendations are multifaceted. First, if legislation seems likely in your jurisdiction and has not yet been passed, make your voice heard. Speak with other Law Enforcement in your area and share your collective concerns and needs with your legislators so that legislation that will be passed addresses Law Enforcement concerns and bolsters your ability to maintain safety in your communities. You could join with other groups who will be affected with similar concerns, such as medical professionals … ”

For more information or for a copy of the full paper, contact the I.U.P.A. Research Department.

Additional Topics

Police Departments Need to Ease Tattoo Restrictions in Order to Attract More Applicants – 29% of Americans have at least one tattoo per a 2016 Harris Poll and 69% of those have two or more. While only 13% of Baby Boomers, 10% of those age 70 or more, 36% of those age 46 to 50 have a tattoo, 47% of Millennials reportedly have a tattoo and 37% have more than one. This means that nearly half of police recruits have a tattoo … ”

For more information or for a copy of the handout, contact the I.U.P.A. Research Department.

“Employees must be able to work well together, understand their roles well, and know their job functions which must be well-supported by their training. There are liability concerns as well, particularly in today’s media climate in the event that anyone is involved in an incident whose training and/or background is not a good fit for their role in the department. Another important consideration is that sworn officers who have been injured and must work light duty, must have a position to work in that is comparable … ”

For more information or for a copy of the full paper, contact the I.U.P.A. Research Department.

“The I.U.P.A.’s conclusions/recommendations include a focus on safety, to include adequate staffing numbers; appropriate lifesaving equipment such as bullet proof vests, naloxone in the event of accidental inhalation of dangerous narcotics, first aid equipment to include tourniquets, and safe and secure parking lots for personnel; and more mundane, but important concerns, such as sufficient and up to date training, which should include vehicle safety during emergency operations … ”

For more information or for a copy of the full paper, contact the I.U.P.A. Research Department.

“In the I.U.P.A. survey of corrections departments from across the United States, only one of thirteen departments permitted electronic cigarettes and noted that they have to confiscate them from inmates who have attempted to tamper with them. Nearly a third of the departments surveyed reported that they have had to confiscate them and just under a quarter of them reported that they are aware of dangers that have occurred in their facility due to electronic cigarettes. Of the thirteen comments shared by officers, four of them stated that they are not, have never been, and/or should not be permitted. The remaining nine shared specific hazards that electronic cigarettes pose such as their explosive nature, harmful chemicals, potential as weapons, and the danger of them being tampered with … ”

For more information or for a copy of the full paper, contact the I.U.P.A. Research Department.

“A variety of policies currently in use are among the references for this piece, including some Police Department policies from the U.K. and some U.S. policies from schools as well as the National Collegiate Athletic Association. A well-drafted policy with sufficient research and thought behind it will provide for happier personnel, less liability and negative media coverage opportunities, and more harmonious departments. Planning ahead is key … ”

For more information or for a copy of the full paper, contact the I.U.P.A. Research Department.

THE INSTITUTE FOR POLICE RESEARCH (IPR)

The Institute for Police Research is a non-profit research organization affiliated with the International Union of Police Associations and funded by federal grants for studies on issues impacting the law enforcement community.

The IPR completed a study in 2011 regarding the use and effectiveness of reflective vests for law enforcement officers. To find out more information about the study including results, findings, and information about reflective vests, visit: https://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles1/nij/grants/234134.pdf